October 25, 1956

Having crossed the Rubicon

After a crowd of Hungarians are seen fraternizing with Soviet troops in front of the parliament building at Kossuth Square, on party orders the secret police fire into the crowd to make the Soviet soldiers think they are under attack, who respond with gunfire. Over 100 people lose their lives, and this is when the revolution is considered to have crossed the Rubicon.

Later that day in response to the massacre, Ernő Gerő is dismissed as party secretary and replaced by János Kádár, a reform communist like Nagy. The two are, however, the only reform communists in leadership positions.

The first free newspaper, Igazság, appears.